We gazed at the mountains of green forests and were fascinated by the mistletoes of the clouds. And when a small house stood alone on a hill surrounded by clouds and green forests, the level of thought and well-being increased manifold. Unknowingly the desire to wake up – ah! If I could touch it once, I could have been in this heaven.
This little house is very familiar to those who roam the mountains. Generally known as Jumughar. Zoo cultivation is one of the most popular methods of agriculture in the hill country of Bangladesh. It is said to be the only agricultural management that guarantees yearly food security to the local hills and is the main source of income. The cultivation is the name of cultivation by cultivating multi-dimensional seeds in the hills. Zoom crops are produced and collected periodically. That is why the temporary house built for zoom maintenance is the zoom room. The zoo is never built for beauty.
The hill has many uses for it. Even to tourists, travelers. For those who have traveled deep into the hill country, more specifically, have wandered or traveled on a short-lived trail / offtrail, the zoo has been present once in a lifetime as a penthouse. The monument of the tomb occupies a special place for those who have walked the unparalleled trail, conquering the darkness of the more adventurous night. Zooms and zooms are a place for ordinary travelers to enjoy a refreshing and momentary rest and frame capture.
This is how zooms and zoos are perceived by most. But with zooms and zooms, a different picture of traditions, customs, beliefs, festivals, ceremonies, livelihoods, laughter, dreams, and battles is depicted. Which avoids our eyes. There are also some negatives to this millennium’s agricultural system. The mountainous region of Bangladesh is very limited. Three hill districts, Chittagong district, Greater Mymensingh, parts of Sylhet are notable. Beyond that, some places in Comilla are known only as hills. In these, only three districts of the hill country were seen over the land. There is a small amount of jam cultivation in Sylhet. Garo and Hajong were also cultivated on the Garo hills (Mandi) of the Mymensingh region, and on the Khasia hills of the Sripur, Kulaura and Moulvibazar borders.
But during the British rule, the forest department banned zam cultivation by declaring the natural forests of Garo Hills and Madhupur-Gazipur Bhawal mean areas as protected forests. The prevailing reality is that Garo and Hajongs struggle with poverty and have become accustomed to farming, just like the inhabitants of the flat family. So the new generation is no stranger to jumble. What is called forest land is simply a tree planted. The natural forests in the mountainous areas are almost devoid of trees. Madhupur and Bhawal are average. Zoom was banned for Khasis at the same time in Sylhet.
Bandarban, Khagrachari and Rangamati, all three small ethnic groups are dependent on zoomedicles. About 8 percent of the hill Chittagong hill peoples are zoom farmers. Zoom is their main source of livelihood. Zoom farming is also called Swidden Cultivation, Shifting Cultivation, Slash and Burn Agriculture. There are several steps involved in cultivating a jumble. The first step is to select the land. Zoos are zoomed in a hill for 3 1/2 years. Then the mountain has to be abandoned again to regain its fertile power and a new hill has to be built again for irrigation. In the process, the mountain bushes are cleansed and set on fire.
Usually, at the end of the winter, the cultivated mountains are chosen and their bushes and forests cut down. The cut forests are dried and in fact, they are given special process fire. The fire started mainly in the month of Flagon-Chaitra. Many started the Baishakh ceremony and started setting the fire. The forest is buried in ashes. Then wait for the rain. It is the turn of the seed planting when it rains. In the month of Bhadra-Ashwin, when the zoom crop grows, the zoo house is built to protect the crop. The zoo house also serves as a temporary residence, primary grain storage, harvesting ground, security post, and entertainment.
Families that are far away from the zoom (the hill called village Paara) begin to live with the family at this time. Finished harvesting and returned to a permanent home. Zoom crops are done periodically. First, Marfa (Cucumber National Fruit) towards the month of June-July (Ashar-Shravan). Maize is harvested in July-August and rice harvesting begins in September- October.
The zoo is built quite a bit above the ground. The main building materials are bamboo. Usually, the top of the zoom is made near a large tree so that the entire zoom area is easily visible. The zoom room is small or medium-sized. Usually, there is one cell, but for the conservation of the crop, many build two rooms. Each room has a wide-open area with a special machenga extending from the main house to the front. It has three sides and the main house is on one side. The makhang is also seen on two sides of some jumble. Usually, there is no barrier to the east and west sides of Machang, as this part is used for drying crops. Bamboo is planted along the edge of Machang, where the corn crops are hung and dried and can be used for daily use.
The height of the hut is not too high. Because he had to stand on a mountain with strong winds. The roof of the dome is made of twine and the direction of the flow of the air is steeper. So that the air is not obstructed. The solitary zoo is rarely seen. The stove is made up of holes under each jumble. It also helps keep the zoo warm in addition to cooking. The roof of the dome is constructed of hemp and bamboo, but tin is also seen in some jumble lately. Many plant flowers around the hut. There are no windows in the zoo. There are usually two doors to the north and south. However, there is also a door zoom. The drainage is made for the bottom of the hut so that the water does not freeze and the rainwater can be zoomed in after the roof.
The zooms and zooms that satisfy our hunger and thirst for peace, are behind every hill in the hills. I was fortunate to see some of their zoom-centric activities and rituals due to spending more time with the bombs. They use nice words. Inside it, on the day when the first seeds are sown in Jum, the bombers call it ‘Quito’ and in their language the thalam is a thalam. The name he uses for sowing seeds is called ‘Namtang’. The basket he uses for harvesting and transporting crops is called ‘sai’. And what is called ‘Thaleethar’, which is used to reap the harvest? Among the products that Bomba produces are koala mum (maize), changma (marafa), mycenae (sweet pumpkin), maple (fake pumpkin / white pumpkin), ioting (ginger), iyeng (yellow), bali (bean), marsia. (Pepper), fang (paddy), or (turtle), la (cotton), etc. Besides, there is a potato called glassAloo which tastes like sweet potato. Look at the rod. Like a snack on a winter morning, the fire has a different aroma to burn in the fire.
In the past, even in the past, some of the neighborhood bombers worshiped ‘Zoom Mangal’. They say ‘Lou Thing Kung Ball’. This worship either expresses gratitude to the Zoom god. Bombers believe that zoom provides them with year-round food, disregarding it. Because the spirit of Zoom does not leave the Zoom owner behind for three years. On the day before Jum Mangal worship, the girls of the family make the batter (usually of Binny paddy) and in the early morning, the men go to the zoom to sprinkle the rice powder all the way. On the day of the zoom, a stone is hidden under the tree. The stone is to be found on the day of worship.
When the stone was found, everyone shouted for joy and zoomed in on the forehead. Then a mawfa and a bamboo jug were also placed along it to reach the stone next to a hole in the zoom potato. Then a rooster or a pig is slaughtered on that stone. The mantras of the sacrificial animals are recited in the worship stanza. The bamboo fence is enclosed around the stone and decorated with flowers, banana leaves, and hen’s feathers. Zoom owner is not allowed to zoom in after worship.
Apart from this, it is still customary to show ‘Rua kha jar’ for rain. Although most sacrificial rituals are sacrificial, they are not required for ‘rua kha jar’. There is no fixed time for this worship. This can be worshiped any day after cleaning the zoom. All together took the day. There is no formality to this worship. Like everyday work, girls go to fetch water in the morning. However, you have to bring water very carefully. Because the person whose back is soaked and leaves water in the way, he has many bad reputations. The men clean the jungle next to the house, scrub the dirt beneath the Machang house, and make drains so that the rainwater does not go under the house. He also repairs the house stairs and other places. Basically, once a year, everyone gives himself and his village clearing and cleaning up.
However, after the conversion to Christianity, most of these bombs became accustomed to the church. Thousands of these rituals are now on their way to becoming irregular.
One of the specialties of Jumcha cultivation is that after all the crops are harvested, some of the crops themselves start to be called ‘lochul’. In this way, the word ‘rani’ is more familiar to us. Besides, Marma says – ‘Pungaho’. People of every ethnicity have their own unique ritual of zoom. It is only natural for millennials to expect the beliefs and rules of the East and to distinguish between tribes and tribes. The Marmas have adopted a special process for selecting zoom land. Sak and mrods also have special worship. The hill-climbers are moving away from these rituals. Marma’s select the experimental hill for the zoom. Then cut the bushes and cleaned a place and made a platform like bamboo. Two pieces of soil are prayed for the deity by placing them on the structure.
Then a piece of clay from the zoom is placed under the pillow while sleeping at night. In the dream, if the landlord dreams to eat rice with fish, milk, meat, etc., then it is considered auspicious and the land is selected for zoom. And if in a dream there is a scene of haircut, mockery, white dress, then it is considered as an evil and an ominous sign, and the land is not cultivated that year. Have to look for a new place. The Marmas call the zoo a ‘buck’. Before the paddy harvest, the custom of worshiping ‘Awangma’ is prevalent among the Marmas. The event is conducted by the village head (business). Basically it’s a banquet festival. The elite people of the society are invited. Banana leaves are spread on banana leaves and rice is hung on it.
A pig is tied there. In another container, the blood of the chicken baby in a container, two eggs, one bottle of wine, several varieties of rice, one cooked chicken baby, one bundle of yarn, some cooked vegetables, water, one-dish rice, boiled shrimp, three raw chilies and two The silver coin is kept. These products are washed with water. Then everyone in attendance prays to the macha. The paddy is then picked up and taken to the designated area of the paddy field. At that time the pig was also taken and everyone followed the machete. Then the priest recites some mantras. The pork is slaughtered and its meat is cooked and everyone feeds on rice, meat and wine.
The sock determines if the zoom is determined for the zoom, whether it is good or bad. After determining the land, he cut the bamboo with a cross on his head and placed the bamboo in a certain place. Then, after seeing the good day, selects the egg for the deity and selects the place. The event is called ‘Sakin’ by Us. The event is quite like this: The family owner decides to take Usain’s place near a lake near the zoom. At this time, they must carry a pair of a rooster, chicken, raw turmeric, zoom potatoes, cotton, an egg, spinach, yarn, etc.
Usain is chosen for such a place, which is full of branches and leaves around the place where he decides for food, and such a tree is perfect. The so-called ‘knightpang’ or deity tree. At the base of the tree, a bamboo machanghar is built, called ‘naitchang’ or a house of deity. The feathers were then slaughtered by slaughtering the poultry taken for worship and the chicken was slowly boiled. The main object of worship is the egg is also boiled. Then other things are arranged at the base of the ‘deity tree’. Then worship started. At the end of the puja, the egg is cut into two halves with a twist. Eggs are devoid of stains and cleansing is considered as auspicious and the zygote is selected for zooming. Another thing is that the roasting stone is rubbed with the blood of the cock. That day is a little, but some zooms have to be cleared. While zooming in, sockers do not talk to anyone outside. After the hard work of the year, the new festival comes. Sakas call the new festival ‘Anganibuk Po’.
The names of the zooms related to the Pangkhoyas are also very attractive: such as “lo-no”, which tells jumchas, “Falder J” is a ritual of selecting the land, “Lou Bhat” is a zoom cut, “Lou Or” is a zumpora, “Lou Chu Sak”. Hall Zoo. Likewise, ‘Chim khong ka halk’ is sown, rice is called ‘sangshin’ and paddy is sown, ‘sang ra chil’ etc.
Khyang also has some zoom-centric festivals inside which the ‘Henai’ is a new festival. However, the rice is done after sowing. Also, ‘Bugle’ is a fun feast of zooming in to protect wild animals.
There are many religious practices associated with zoom cultivation in the Khumi community. Inside the rituals that focus on the zoom: ‘Cho-pla’ is the worship of rice harvesting. So that the gods help to get more crops. Zoom weeds are cleaned and weeds are minimized so the worshiper Khumri tells them ‘lb’. Worship is not just a weed but is also done for the purpose of not causing any disease in the jum. It is worshiped with chicken and eggs just like sakas. Also, ‘Nisha-Ja’ is the worship of the mortgaged during the dry season. ‘Nicho-Ja’ is the worship of Ashari. All of these two places of worship have to be combined. Goats, pigs and chickens are sacrificed. Then people from the hill cannot go outside and from the outside. The festival takes place in 2 1/2 days. The main purpose of this worship is to keep the mountain deities at bay.
Tripura’s ‘Gorya Dance’ is a famous dance performed on jumchas and livelihoods. Scenes like zooming, sowing seeds at the zoom, cleaning weeds, pulling animals, cutting rice, mowing rice, etc. are presented in the dance.
There are some worship and festivals of Mro / Morang that focus on the zoom. Inside it, ‘Ningma Naikhang Pai’ is a festival of rest. The festival is celebrated at rest after the harvest of the zoom. During the festival, we have to pray to the synagogue thrice a day and a new crop is dedicated at Jum so that we can have a good harvest next year. Apart from this, ‘Batthak Khang’ worship is organized with the best wishes of the year before the zoom. The puja is completed for three days through various rituals. ‘Siadong Khang’ worship is the rainy season. This is the reason for organizing – crops such as rice, cotton, linseed, barley, raisins, pumpkin, etc. so that they do not fall prematurely. This worship also lasts for three days. On the 7th day, the girls and men went to the pooja to make a cake. In the middle of the zoom, the turtle is sacrificed on the altar, one for each of the weavers and shrubs. It’s called ‘Yuucha’ which means zoom smoke. After all, like other festivals, the feasting period begins.
Zoom’s core functions are almost the same. In a row, men and women began the work of sowing seeds. Usually, the seeds are planted from bottom to top. The seeds of all the crops are given in the hole by the hole. Only sesame seeds and mestapata (a type of herb) are spread throughout the field. Basically the national crops of tubers are planted at the edge of the zoom, such as yellow and ginger. Many flowers are also planted in the jungle to make the zoo attractive. I have also seen several garden flowers, including rose flowers.
Rice is one of the major crops in the zoom. Zum cultivators cultivate different varieties of rice. Inside it is quite well-known names like Kamarang, Badhoya, Kobrak, Turgi, Mehle, Kaun, Birani / Binni, Ami Sori. There are many varieties of these rice again. Grave rice is sown in mid-April. Mehle, Naboda, Rangi, Kaun, and Geelong are ripe in August, Sori and Ame are ripe in September. Kamrangaga paddy is sown in May and end of all. Bombs cultivate a variety of rice called Renpui. Light reddish colored rice. Tasty to eat too. I have seen and eaten with the locals, but have not found the name paddy in any book. May be called in a different language. Besides, about 5 species of rice are found in the name of Galong, Bukkai, Lendachigon, Delong, Fonte, Chakarma, Fry, Kundum, Naikang, Tangdo.
I have heard of some more rice names such as kungda, mongthong, reng- -pui, baa, vathao, etc. The rice may be the same but the name varies with the Vedas. So there is scope for detailed research on this. Varieties of vegetables, tubers (various types of potatoes, various varieties of turmeric, turmeric, ginger), sesame, cotton, and even bananas are cultivated. Cotton cultivation is recently reduced. Commercial production is no more. However, cotton was once the main monetary crop. Banning tobacco cultivation should again be encouraged in commercial cultivation of cotton. Zedena (look like sugarcane / sugarcane tree and its juice is sweet as sugarcane juice. Bom says Kangchang / kongchang) and pepper are cultivated. However, there is a small type of chilli, called chili pepper (marmaiate / marhsiate) that grows on the hillside, which does not require cultivation. Hills use this chili in cooking. Therefore, cultivation can also be called multi-crop agriculture.
Most of the land-farming farmers in Bangladesh are marginal farmers. They are not the real owners of the land for the management of the hill country. Zuma cultivation is their main livelihood as there is no alternative to the profession in the hills. Another reason is that many crops are available in the same land all year round so cultivators are at the peak of their choice.
I shared about zooms, zooms, crops, festivals, my heritage, and know-how. However, reality speaks differently. Zoom farming is harmful to the environment and the environment. Though ruthless, this is largely true. The process of creating zoomed land is risky for the environment and biodiversity. The trees are the life of the mountains of Bangladesh. The tree is not pleasant to anyone on the bare hills. There are many sides to the opposition to the cultivation of land. That is how you present the argument. There is even a section of government for controlling the cultivation of jhumkas. In 7, the ‘Zoom Control Forestry Department’ was established. The purpose was to regulate zoom cultivation, protect the environment and forests, create alternative employment and so on. But both the objectives and the goals of this section have seen failure. The damaging side of the zoom is the earthquake; Reducing the nutrient content of the soil; Shrubs, canals, rivers, and lakes fill and reduce nests; Reduced biodiversity; Reducing the fertility of the land; Destroying the neighborhood of the area; Reducing grazing of wildlife; Landslide; Increase in heat, etc. However, the issue of landslides is quite questionable. Unpredictable settlements, building resorts, and road construction without geological surveys are more responsible for landslides than zooms.
The traditional practice of zooming has a negative impact on the environment and the environment, it must be acknowledged. Lives and pests are greatly damaged by burning zoom lands. As a result, the adverse effects on the food chain are not avoided. Due to the shortage of land and the rapid increase in demand, the hill can no longer be rested for another 3-5 years as before. Until the last two decades, the zoom arbutan cycle was given a break of 5/5 years. At present, the hills are being forced to repeatedly plow through 2 1/2 years. The most alarming thing is that the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is increasing day by day. Which was not used in the past. As usual, the use of seeds is also decreasing. Now the zamukhars are interested in using high-quality varieties of seeds.
Naturally, the zoo is used as a hunting hat. This is my personal opinion and I have noticed in particular that most of the victims in the hilly areas are trapped in the vicinity of the zoom. Some animals are attracted to the crop because of the natural causes when the crop starts to ripen. In addition to guarding and protecting the zoos of the crocodiles in order to save the crop, they do not want to exclude the victims. Limited hunting may be adapted to meet the needs of the species. People of the nation living in the mountains are by nature and traditionally more or fewer victims. There is a growing trend of increasing public welfare and freely hunting for demand, and the practice of hunting at Zoom has become apparent.
Not that it wasn’t in the past. People were less then zoomed in. The abundance of victims was high. In this case earthworms (Mathura, Forest Cock, etc.), birds, Maya Deer, Squirrel, Szaru, Bashmun rats / Gothic rats (called ‘young’), and bear (mahogany) are more victims. And the existence of other creatures is no longer the case. The effect of chemical fertilizers and pesticides is even greater. It has detrimental side effects both on land and in water. Especially the aquatic organisms of birds and shrimp are being directly affected. Even though the zoo growers do not cut large trees for the zoom and are not burned in the fire, the damage can be done to the fire. Bamboo burnt ash is good for jam cultivation, so the farmers prefer the slopes of the main hill of bamboo. It disrupts the natural breeding of bamboo.
There are arguments in favor of jumculture. Directly told the zookeepers what can be harmful to the zoom. Their simple answer is, “Dada then what should I eat?” When I say in more detail the answer comes, the jungle becomes a grandfather, the big tree does not burn. The fact that big trees in the zoom act like the shade of a tea garden. They do not understand the earthquake. If their argument was to be filled with such water, then there would be no springs. And to this day there are no examples of fillings. In addition, roads, culverts, and illegal stone trade are being threatened by the use of shrubbery.
Harmful to traditional zoom environments, this is unpleasant but true. Therefore, different scientific methods have also been discovered. Apart from Bangladesh, India’s Seven Sisters, China, Nepal, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka are also widely practiced in these countries. There are hilly agricultural research institutes in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Nepal and Bangladesh have jointly developed a technology for farming in the hills called SALT (Sloping Agricultural Land Technology). But it did not find acceptance to the Zumcas. Besides, there is another environmentally friendly technology called MATH (Modern Agricultural Technology in the Hill), but it could not reach the ground level.
To save the hill, the hills have to be saved as well. It is not advisable to stop jamming with the environment. Because in the past, the Garo and Hajong of Mymensingh have come to a serious crisis in their life after stopping the cultivation. Due to the lack of alternative employment, they quickly survive from poor to poor. But the forest did not cease to be desolate, but the forest was rapidly deserted. Likewise, population control seems important before zooming in three hill districts. The number of people on the hills is increasing very fast. And to meet the food needs of this growing population, new hills are being brought under the zoom. Therefore, in addition to raising awareness, it is important to adopt special birth control projects in the hills. Apart from the traditional methods, modern methods need to be delivered to the hills and encouraged to follow them. Only then can the modern stone age of artistic cultivation be modernized and sustained. Hills and biodiversity can be kept alive.
Source and Gratitude:
- The Hill Tracts of Chittagong & the Dwellers Therein-T H Lewin 2. The Chittagong Hill Tracts Living in Borderland – Willem van Schendel, Wolfgang Mey & Aditya kumar dewan. 3. Chittagong hill-tracts gazetteers -1971 4. Eastern Bengal and Assam District. Gazetteers – Chittagong Hill
Tracts- R. H. Sneyd Hutchinson 5. Various zamchis (Bom, Pangkhoa, Khiang) shared valuable information on the waste of time, shared real experience. Articles by Lelung Khumi, Bir Kumar Tanchangya, Xinjiang Mro.
## Featured Image by Shagibul Islam Nayan